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  1. The hydrogen combustion engine was once the hope of modern mobility. While there were notable successes on the engine side, energy efficiency and storage of liquid hydrogen posed problems. For Mercedes and BMW reason enough to put the project to rest. Mazda, however, continues to believe in success and research, albeit modest, the rotary engine. And Aston Martin hopes for fast lap times with hydrogen combustion. Hydrogen internal combustion engine The fuel of the future will one day be made from fruits, from apples, weeds or sawdust. That sounds like "Back to the Future," but was circulated by Henry Ford many years before Bob Gale's screenplay - in an interview with The New York Times [1]. Ford firmly believed it. After all, he originally designed his Ford Model T, built from 1908 to 1927, on the basis "that ethanol is the fuel of the future, which at the same time would give agriculture new impetus for growth." A misjudgment. The research vehicle 230 HP with hydrogen drive from Daimler-Benz (© Daimler-Benz) The petroleum-based fuels such as gasoline and diesel won the race. Especially because the price was low due to the high availability and because the company Standard Oil used its influence on politics. Although numerous alternative gasoline fuels have been tested over time, the dilemma remained with the emissions of the combustion of fuels. In particular, CO 2 , CO and nitrogen oxides were difficult for the engine developers in the stomach. Until hydrogen was discovered as the solution to nearly all emissions problems in the internal combustion engine. The project "Hydrogen Drive" was suddenly a federal matter in the early 1980s. Although Mazda is still researching the hydrogen rotary engine, it is still on the backburner (© Mazda) Alternative energy for the road Now, the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology has generously promoted the hydrogen-burning engine. To the delight of Daimler-Benz. The carmaker participated in several demonstrations and research programs on alternative energy sources for road transport, which ran until the end of 1982. Based on the vehicle types Mercedes-Benz 230 TE and 280 TE tested the Stuttgart on the standard built 2.3-liter gasoline engine, the fuel alternative. Linde presented a forklift truck with a water-based internal combustion engine in 2008 (© Linde) Noteworthy: In hydrogen operation, the engine delivered a rated output of approximately 65 kW at a compression ratio of 9: 1. As Daimler reported at the time, the car could drive in city traffic with a refueling about 130 km. Around 6 kg of hydrogen were stored in a magnesium hydride storage facility weighing about 300 kg. That corresponded to a gasoline equivalent of just over 20 liters. An actually bleak energy efficiency, which ultimately put an end to the "project", as the company announced on request. "The H 2 burner has half the efficiency of the H 2 fuel cell," says Daimler, adding the advice: "If you want to use hydrogen as a fuel, the fuel cell is the most sensible way." Bavaria's prestigious project Hydrogen 7 But the Stuttgart were still optimistic in the 1980s and reported five years later that they have successfully completed their "large-scale experiment in Berlin, Mercedes-Benz production vehicles with hydrogen, successfully completed." In the 1988 annual report, they also announced new projects "for the use of hydrogen energy in the vehicle". The hydrogen they wanted to win together with Canadian and Norwegian institutions from hydropower, transport by tanker to Germany and in this country "use for bus fleets." It stayed with the announcement. The engine of BMW's Hydrogen 7 ran successfully, but was discontinued due to problems with the liquefied gas tank (© BMW) Years later, BWM also wanted to prove with Hydrogen 7 that this fuel is an attractive alternative to conventional fuel. In spring 2006, the company presented the first luxury sedan powered by a hydrogen combustion engine. Suitable for everyday use, as a company spokesman stressed at the time. And also the Bavarian engine developers were confident. In particular, the 750hL type 750hL specimens tested on the basis of the former 750i (E38) and the experience with the hydrogen prototype H 2 R from 2004 were promising. Because the hydrogen combustion engine of the Hydrogen 7 was technically almost identical to the engine of the 760i, the development costs were kept within limits. Already minor changes were enough. Hydrogen burns up to three times faster Mainly the intake tract of the engine had to be modified. Thus, in addition to the direct injection of petrol, the engineers integrated a supply line to the hydrogen tank. Special injection valves should always supply the right amount of hydrogen to the intake air. The valve opening times and the valve control had to be adapted to the new requirements. "A necessity, because hydrogen burns up to three times faster compared to conventional fuels", as Professor Hermann Rottengruber explains. The Head of Department Energy Conversion Systems for Mobile Applications at the Institute for Mobile Systems of the Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg is closely linked to the development of the hydrogen engine. For several years, he was responsible for the drive advanced development of BMW AG for H 2 combustion processes - most recently as the overall responsible for hydrogen combustion processes in advanced drive development. During this time he also got to know the pitfalls of hydrogen combustion. Due to the low activation energy of hydrogen, unwanted explosions often occurred in the early development phase. But it managed to tame the engine. Thomas Korn, CEO of Keyou, next to the prototype hydrogen combustion engine (© Keyou) That's why the Hydrogen 7 project failed This is also reflected in the performance figures. Powered by hydrogen, the Hydrogen 7 engine achieves only 191 kW and a torque of almost 390 Nm. On the other hand, there are the 327 kW and 600 Nm of the conventionally driven 760i. With a tank capacity of 8 kg was at that time a range of about 200 km possible. But why did the project fall into disfavor? Just when it succeeded to construct a successor engine, which had similar performance values as a gasoline engine. On the one hand, the liquid hydrogen storage caused great headaches. The stored fuel at extremely low temperatures disappeared after some time despite extensive insulation. Crucial, however, was in addition to the lack of infrastructure and the verdict of the California Environmental Protection Agency EPA, the Hydrogen 7 not as a Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) recognize. It was feared that lubricating oil could get into the combustion chamber. Disappointed announced in 2009, the then BMW Development Board Klaus Draeger the Handelsblatt: "There will be no new hydrogen test fleet for the time being" [4]. Mazda holds on hydrogen rotary engine But the hydrogen combustion engine is not finished yet. As Mazda announces on request, the Japanese OEM continues to research and develop hydrogen-powered internal combustion engines. "However, most of the resources are needed to develop our next generation of gasoline and diesel engines," says Mazda. This is another reason why only a relatively small engineering team continues to work on rotary piston hydrogen engines. That only this unit is used, has good reasons. "The Wankel engine offers clear principle-related advantages over conventional piston engines, especially in hydrogen operation," explains the company. Already 35 years ago, experiments have confirmed this. In cooperation of Audi NSU, Neckarsulm, and the Research Association for Energy Technology and Combustion Technology (FEV), Aachen, "the advantage of the high power density of the rotary engine EA 871 was confirmed", as reported in 1983 [4]. In addition, the "necessary to adapt the engine measures are much easier than with reciprocating engines," wrote the authors. In their contribution, they showed, among other things, that the efficiencies of both engine types were about the same size, but that the "rotary engine has advantages in terms of nitrogen oxide emissions and power density". In addition, irregular burn phenomena such as pre-ignition or knocking were better controlled. Industrial truck with charged hydrogen combustion engine By the way, the engine developers at Volkswagen also have successes in the field of H 2 burning. In co-operation with the Industrial Engines division, Group research has developed a supercharged hydrogen direct injection engine for directing industrial trucks [5]. For Linde a prestigious project. In May 2008, it was able to present the unit for the first time in a forklift worldwide. Although composting Gruber "holds in the near future highly unlikely" a renaissance of the hydrogen internal combustion engine for use in passenger car: he niche applications in places where hydrogen in large quantities is available (such as a process by-product), can certainly endorse. By the way, the truck has another advantage for those responsible for Volkswagen gasoline engine research: "Internal combustion engines can utilize this possibly 'contaminated' hydrogen, which is thus unsuitable for fuel cells,". Aston Martin focuses on hydrogen in motorsport With a different intention, the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics and Aston Martin approached the topic of hydrogen engine. For the 24-hour race at the Nürburgring, they have developed a twelve-cylinder naturally aspirated engine that will lead an Aston Martin Rapide S to victory. Although the Hybrid Hydrogen could not reach the top positions in Nürburg in May 2013. But the project "to operate the engine in hydrogen operation at partial load with a high air ratio and thus to produce no toxic nitrogen oxide emissions" was successful [6]. While the maximum 303 kW in hydrogen mode could be stably achieved according to the authors, the maximum torque decreased to 610 Nm at 4500 rpm. What was remarkable about the Hybrid Hydrogen project, however, was "that a racing car can be put on the road relatively quickly with components already available on the market". references [1] Kovarik, B .: Henry Ford, Charles F. Kettering and the Fuel of the Future. In: Automotive History Review, 32: pp. 7-27 [2] Carter, T .: Hydrogen drive for automobiles. In: MTZ 44 (1983), No. 6, p. 211 [3] Annual Report 1988, Daimler-Benz AG [4] Fasse, B .: BMW loses faith in the hydrogen drive. In: http://www.handelsblatt.com/unternehmen/industrie/autohersteller-bmw-verliert-glauben-an-den-wasserstoffantrieb/3320432.html, December, 2009, accessed on February 6, 2017 [5] Willand, J .; Grote, A .; Dingel, O .: The Volkswagen hydrogen combustion engine for industrial trucks. In: ATZoffhighway, June 2008, pp. 24-35 [6] Luef, R .; Heher, P .; Hepp, C .; Schaffer, K .; Sporer H .; Eichlseder, H .: Conception and development of a hydrogen gasoline engine for racing. 8th Conference "Gas Vehicles", Stuttgart, 31 October 2013
  2. In April, the Tesla Model S and Model X had received some improvements. Already pre-produced vehicles without these innovations will be sold until the end of June with a treat: free supercharging. There is also news about the pickup and the roadster. Tesla had already abolished the free supercharging in 2017. In the context of limited customer actions, it came back again and again. So also in mid-May: already pre-produced Model S and Model X, which do not yet have the improvements introduced in April , should be sold out by the end of May - with free supercharging as an incentive. Now Tesla has extended the campaign to the end of June, as the company announced on Twitter. In 2012, Tesla had sold all models with lifelong free charging on its own supercharger network. Such vehicles are now in demand as used cars, because over the years Tesla has the free supercharging ever further restricted - for example, only for a period of six months or a certain mileage. Also, the current action is subject to a restriction: The free loading of superchargers applies only to the first owner, with a resale expires the offer. The action is a simple tool to still sell the vehicles with little effort. In an interview on the weekend, Tesla CEO Elon Musk has made clear what the focus of the company is currently - and these are the Model 3 and the upcoming Model Y. This has consequences for the other series: The announced for 2020 Roadster 2 could delay. Musk described the sports car as a "dessert" in a conversation with the podcast "Ride the Lighting". "Do we really need the new roadster to accelerate our progress towards autonomous driving or electrification? No! ", Says Musk. Although he did not announce a delay directly, but did not confirm the 2017 announced start date. One thing is clear: the volume models have priority. Musk does not want to rely exclusively on the Model 3 and Model Y, either. In the conversation he also gave some information about the Tesla pickup . "We do not want him to be very expensive. I think he has to start at less than $ 50,000, "says Musk. But there will also be more expensive variants of the truck. As for the design, it will not be a "normal" pickup, but much futuristic. "He will not be for everyone. Anyone who wants a truck that looks like trucks from the past 20 to 40 years will probably not be happy with it. "Nevertheless, functionality is not sacrificed for the design. The pickup is said to be better than the Ford F-150 in terms of functionality and a better sports car than a Porsche 911, according to Musk. "That's the claim," says Musk.
  3. In the development of sporty electric cars, emphasis has been placed on a strong and spontaneous acceleration in the longitudinal direction of the vehicle. As the inventor of the original quattro drive 40 years ago, Audi is now designing its first electric all-wheel drive for the e-tron electric SUV so that a dynamic torque distribution system between the axles creates a driving system with up to 300 kW of drive power and 220 kW recuperation. From the original quattro to an electric SUV When Audi introduced the mechanical four-wheel drive in passenger cars four decades ago, there were already vehicles with four driven wheels. But the targeted development of a four-wheel drive for a sporty vehicle like the Ur-quattro was something completely new. These days, Audi ties in with the electric quattro drive in the e-tron electric SUV. Even today, there are already electric four-wheeled vehicles, whose sportiness is not based on the dynamic moment distribution between the axles, but in the spontaneous power output of the electric motors. The development goal for the first electric quattro was to implement the most powerful, driving-dynamics, electric four-wheel drive in a production vehicle. Serves all-wheel drive in conventional vehicles to improve traction and driving dynamics, the importance of recuperation is added to the electric vehicle. The Audi e-tron has a recuperation capacity of up to 220 kW [1]. Such a high regenerative deceleration power can only be safely transmitted to the roadway through the distribution on both drive axles. The correct torque distribution thus makes a significant contribution to the range of the vehicle. The distribution of the powertrain torque occurs both for the drive and recuperation case situation and depending on the driving condition. This article focuses on the description of how the drive works. system development An electric four-wheel drive system, unlike mechanical four-wheel drive is not an additional system that is introduced into the drive train only for the purpose of four-wheel drive. The entire electric drivetrain and also the networking and functional architecture of the vehicle must take into account the four-wheel function. For the Audi e-tron, the quattro drive is therefore a key element in the drive system. The influenceability of the torque distribution on the front and rear axle is directly dependent on the electrical machines installed on both drive axles. The design of the so-called distribution range in Figure 1 reflects the basic characteristics of the electric four-wheel drive. Shown is the possible distribution of drive torque between the axes over the total drive torque [2]. The basic design of the four-wheel drive system of the Audi e-tron is similar to the mechanical quattro slightly rear-emphasized, which offers a sporty handling combined with high driving stability and good traction. Image 1 Distribution area - Drive torque distribution between front and rear axles for electric four-wheel drive with continuous power and boost [3] (© Audi) The dynamic distributability of torque and therefore current places high demands on the hardware of the high-voltage on-board electrical system as well as on the software of the drive control. The components must enable a very fast shifting of currents without generating undue overloads due to current peaks. This challenge does not occur with slip control systems that limit but not distribute drive torque. In this limitation or reduction, the high-voltage vehicle electrical system is burdened only by the reduction of electricity. A synchronous current build-up by shifting from moment to second axis, on the other hand, is much more complex in a system with communication latencies. Of particular importance is the redistribution at the power limits of the battery. No additional power can be called here The chain of action to regulate differential speeds between the two drive axes is the most time-critical requirement in architecture, Figure 2 . The speed sensors of the wheels or of the electric machines form the entry into this chain of action. If a control difference is determined, the drive torque at the machine or axle must be reduced at too high a speed and at the same time the drive torque at the other machine must be increased to the same extent. picture 2 ECUs in the distributed quattro function with e-tron technology [3] (© Audi) This chain of effects can be optimized by timing the communication between the functions and ECUs involved. Particularly suitable for this purpose is communication via a deterministic FlexRay bus system. This is therefore used in the Audi e-tron for the communication between the relevant drive functions. control concept The objective for the electric four-wheel drive system was to provide both optimum traction and significantly improve driving dynamics. Therefore, the wheel-selective torque control was integrated by means of brake interventions in the functional software of the electric drive torque distribution. Since these braking interventions generate yaw moment directly, there is also a reproducible control variable available at the setting range limits of the electric torque distribution and thus an always predictable driving behavior with simultaneously simplified application possibilities. The effect of the drive torque on the wheels can be divided into two basic effects: Either the entire drive torque is completely transferred to the road and the tire is operated in the stable (linear) range, or parts of the drive torque can not be fully converted into propulsion and result in increased wheel slip in the non-linear region of tire behavior. In both cases, the yaw moment of the torque distribution arises from the difference in cornering forces between the two axes. Lower cornering forces on the front axle compared to the rear axle lead to a grooving (agilizing) yaw moment; Higher cornering forces on the front axle compared to the rear axle lead to a deflecting (stabilizing) yaw moment, Figure 3, picture 3 Relationship of circumferential and lateral forces with combined slip angle [°] and wheel slip [%] in the diagram according to Krempel [4] (© Audi) The control concept developed consists of the following subfunctions: feedforward control and regulation of the agilizing brake torque, feedforward control of the drive torque distribution, differential slip control, on-board virtual damping function for reducing drive train vibrations and monitoring function to ensure functional safety. With the exception of the virtual damping function, all sub-functions are integrated on the electronic suspension platform (EFP) developed by Audi. For the predictive reduction of power understeer a higher proportion of the drive torque is shifted to the rear axle in the pre-controlled part of the four-wheel drive in response to the driver's desired torque. At high accelerator pedal gradients, this effect is even further enhanced in order to noticeably increase the spontaneity of the vehicle response. At the power limit of the drives, the distribution is limited, Figure 1 , and must be compensated by additional braking torque. With the additional control of the hydraulic brake on the inside wheels, the control tendency, which is characterized by the Eigenlenkgradienten be set and improved regardless of the availability of the drive torque. In addition, it is possible to dispense with a targeted differential slip between the two drive axles for influencing the control tendency, which has a positive effect on the traction from the point of view of the all-wheel drive control. The dynamic displacement of the wheel contact forces during accelerated driving results in an equivalent change in the skew stiffnesses on both axles, which can lead to an understeering behavior of the vehicle, the so-called power understeer, Figure 4, This change of the Eigenlenkgradienten compared to the stationary vehicle can be compensated by braking torques on the inside wheels. However, these braking torques are only made if the forces transmitted to the roadway exceed a certain level in relation to the deductible forces. The non-linear behavior of the skew stiffnesses in the boundary region of the vehicle is compensated in addition with a PI understeer controller. However, this is so limited that a deflection by the driver does not lead to an oversteering vehicle. Picture 4 Feedforward control of the brake torque vectoring function (© Audi) When cornering in the border area and sudden withdrawal of the accelerator pedal position (load change) occurs opposite to the understeer power effect. It comes to a significant reduction of the wheel contact forces on the rear axle and thus to a einrehenden yaw moment. To dampen this load change reaction, drive torque can be distributed to the front axle. Even with an oversteering vehicle, the cornering forces on the rear axle can be increased by reducing the longitudinal forces, that is, by shifting the drive torque to the front axle via the all-wheel drive. At the power limit of the drives, the four-wheel-drive control system must reduce the total drive torque compared to the driver's desired torque in order to enable the necessary front-emphasized drive torque distribution. The possibility of ensuring the ratio of the drive torques by means of axle-selective torque limitation is a significant advantage of electric four-wheel drives in comparison to four-wheel systems with clutches or locks. Their setting range limits are defined constructively by the ratio of the axis speeds and can not be changed by the control. Regulation of differential slip The differential slip control ensures parallel to the pilot-controlled torque distribution that the resulting drive slip between the two axes remains within the intended limits. However, effects from the different orbit radii of the axles when cornering and differences in the rolling circumference of the tires are not compensated here in order not to virtually clamp the drive train. The calculation of the limits of the allowed differential slip takes place directly from the precontrolled torque distribution via the scaling with a linear equivalent longitudinal rigidity of the tires. As a result, all relevant properties are automatically transformed into differential slip. So that the differential slip controller is not permanently active, activation thresholds are also taken into account symmetrically to the limits of the differential slip. The differential slip controller is implemented as a PID controller whose three main amplifications are adapted to the respective drive torque. The bandwidth of the closed loop is limited on the one hand by the natural frequency of the drive train and by the transmission speed of FlexRay networking. Challenging in electric all-wheel drives is the low mechanical damping in the drive train. Rapid changes in the drive torque distribution inevitably lead to an excitation of vibrations in the resonance frequency of the drive train. So that no speed losses have to be accepted in the control, an on-the-fly virtual damping function is superimposed. The virtual damping is done by a P controller between measured wheel and rotor speeds, Figure 5 . Picture 5 Effectiveness of the four-wheel-steering and virtual damping control in the frequency range, schematically (© Audi) Optimization of driving dynamics and functional safety In addition to the functions for optimizing driving dynamics and traction, efficient torque distribution and functional safety have also been taken into account in the controller concept. Without additional measures, the four-wheel drive would always act on both axes with drive torque and thus lead to an efficiency disadvantage. For this reason, the need for four-wheel-drive distribution is continuously estimated for reasons of traction and driving dynamics, and if necessary, the most efficient operating strategy is selected. The functional concept is based on the logic already used in the quattro with ultra technology. As a result, both maximum efficiency and the best possible traction and driving dynamics can be achieved. The concept for the functional safety of the four-wheel drive is based on a simplified slip control, which keeps the differential slip within a certain driving situation-dependent safe hose. The four-wheel function thus ensures the safe operation of the two decoupled axle drives. The intrinsically safe operation of the wheel-selective torque control is ensured with a downstream yaw rate monitoring on the vehicle level in every driving situation. Results in the vehicle in comparison The advantages of a four-wheel controller with an integrated wheel-selective torque control can be shown in snow handling, Figure 6 . For this purpose, the driving dynamics of the electric four-wheel drive in the Audi e-tron were compared with the clutch-based all-wheel drive in the Audi R8 V10 quattro sports car, Figure 7 [3]. This comparison was chosen because both vehicles are technical implementations of the quattro drive with actively controlled system and on the snow track driving behavior is defined more by the four-wheel drive than by the vehicle concept. Picture 6 Advantages of the four-wheel controller with integrated wheel-selective torque control during snow handling (© Audi) Picture 7 Driving dynamics comparison between quattro with e-tron technology and the clutch all-wheel system in the Audi R8 V10 quattro on a snow handling course [3] (© Audi) Both vehicles show a very neutral driving behavior with very little tendency to oversteer or understeer. The Audi e-tron has a slightly higher tendency to oversteer compared to the Audi R8 at high drive torques. This is due to the application of the wheel-selective torque control in the border region. The vehicle follows the steering even if this leads to a slightly oversteer, easy to control by the driver driving behavior. The R8 is designed as a sports car, however, for high speeds and therefore has a more neutral driving behavior in this driving situation. The advantages of the R8 with a hang-on front axle are particularly noticeable on high friction and race tracks. On a snow handling course, the R8 already shows a very low understeer tendency. However, the fully variable four-wheel drive of the e-tron can further reduce this over the entire drive torque range. The combination of electric four-wheel drive and wheel-selective torque control reduces the understeer tendency even in driving situations with low traction, since the driving behavior can be reproducibly improved with minimal braking intervention. Conclusion Many battery electric vehicles offer a very good driving dynamics on high friction. The reasons for this lie in the spontaneous power output of the electric drives and the low center of gravity through the underbody battery. Like the original quattro for conventional vehicles, the Audi e-tron offers, for the first time ever, an unprecedented sporting driving experience and the best traction characteristics on all friction coefficients for an electric vehicle. The Audi e-tron continues the successful history of the quattro drive and transports it into the electric age. By adopting an integrated wheel-selective torque control as the central element in the drive system, an electric four-wheel system was able to be realized for the first time, even if the traction control is deactivated and the electric motors release their entire power. The prerequisites for achieving the goals defined at the beginning of the project, apart from the correct design of the electric drivetrain, were above all the integrated functional approach and the conception of the software functions. In addition to these technical constraints, the close cooperation on all chassis and powertrain functions in the development group, in particular, made a decisive contribution to achieving the specifications. References [1] Geuss, M .; Wine, M .; Hörter, M .; Strasser, S .; Schwarz, R .: Highly efficient recuperation in the Audi e-tron - Audi SW function in conjunction with the By-Wire brake system. 27th Aachen Colloquium, 08. to 10.10.2018 [2] Wein, M .: Concept of an electrified four-wheel drive for a plug-in hybrid vehicle. Aachen: ika Series Automotive Technology, 2015 [3] Graf, C .; Wine, M .; Baur, M .; Strasser, S .; Schwarz, R .: quattro with e-tron technology - Electric four-wheel drive system with wheel-selective torque control. 27th Aachen Colloquium, 08. to 10.10.2018 [4] Heißing, B .; Ersoy, M .; Gies, S .: Fahrwerkhandbuch - Fundamentals, Driving Dynamics, Components, Systems, Mechatronics, Perspectives. 3rd edition, Wiesbaden: Vieweg Teubner, 2011
  4. It only seems to be moments compared to the more than 125 years of automotive development until the driver is no longer needed. The robotic vehicle will soon be in front of the door, more punctual and safer than any human could ever do. In that case, the focus would no longer be on the automobile as a product, but on intelligent mobility services. Robotic minibus taxis would be a historic opportunity. Only for whom? Business model Robot automobile This with the business model has yet to be explained. Who will earn in the future how much and what about an autonomously driving automobile? In any case, the established automotive industry is having a hard time finding a binding answer. Not only that. Some doubt the success of the robotic car business model. Volkswagen Board member Thomas Sedran, for example. Even before the Geneva Motor Show opened its doors in March 2019, he let it be known that it was not a functioning business model because of the high cost. Now Sedran speaks for commercial vehicles, whose division he is responsible for at Volkswagen as a board member. Although more and more companies are testing the transition to the driverless commercial vehicle. In Colorado, Nevada, California and Texas, among other things, so-called robotic trucks, such as those of Daimler or those of Uber subsidiary Otto, are part of everyday life on the highways of these US states - as well as on the German A9 between Nuremberg and Munich. Since 2018, the logistics service provider Schenker has been testing self-propelled trucks as a networked truck column. For example, two lorries with trailers at a distance of 15 m drive autonomously in real traffic. But the cost of developing safe systems that meet SAE J3016 Level 5 requirements and all functional safety requirements is enormous. They add up to several billion euros across industries. So who should finance it? Development costs are still in the way of profitability The market promises success only when, for example, in commercial vehicles "the drivers actually drop completely", makes Tim Schuldt, analyst of the investment bank Pareto Securities, the simple calculation. And she agrees only under certain conditions, such as while driving through the deserted expanses of Texas and Southern California. A driverless delivery service, whose cars compete in the flowing traffic, by the German capital, for example, will not be there in the foreseeable future. And who now hopes for a cost-effective (ride) in a robotic car, is disappointed by an assessment of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the Harvard Business Review (HBR), [1] as they meet Ashley Nunes and Kristen Hernandez. But despite the poor market opportunities, General Motors dares to experiment with the robotic taxi. An own robot taxi service will soon bring the inhabitants of California for the equivalent of 0.55 euros per driven mile to the destination. Compared to the three US dollars, as they are incurred in a conventional taxi because of the driver's content, a considerable saving. Nunes and Hernandez, however, do not believe in the quick financial success. The project would only be profitable if General Motors demanded "three times the price," the two former MIT researchers and authors of the HBR study predict. Because in addition to the high acquisition costs and the expected higher repair costs of such a vehicle type must be taken into account. And yet, autonomous automobility represents an opportunity. The robot taxi should serve as a solution to the urban ecosystem problem This can be the case, at least for megacities, which suffer from rapid urbanization, unbearable vehicle density and outdated infrastructure. Almost 15% of the world's 1.3 billion vehicles pollute the urban ecosystem. "This will cost more than $ 300 billion in congestion and nearly 20% of transport-related greenhouse gas emissions," said Franck Leveque, Partner and Mobility Business Unit Leader at Frost & Sullivan. In his view, the problem can only be solved through strategic cooperation between public and private stakeholders on operating models, vehicle use, multimodal travel planning and payment options. In short: through innovative mobility models. Autonomous automobiles are the core of potential initiatives for mobility as a service (MaaS) in the big cities. This would increase vehicle utilization, which is currently around 35-40% in cities, by 85%, says Leveque. This not only reduces "the number of kilometers driven on the road, but also reduces traffic congestion and releases 20% of the road surface currently used for parking." According to the study [2], autonomous vehicles can contribute to overall savings of 4% of gross domestic product. With regard to travel expenses, analysts at MaaS expect a reduction of up to 30%. That "autonomous vehicles at the same time reduce the number of traffic accidents to zero", as the authors of the study claim, The cube of the supplier Continental is a courier vehicle without drivers, but with robotic dogs for parcel distribution © Continental Fully automated according to SAE J3016 "The assumption that the elimination of the driver could prevent a large part of all accidents, I think daring," warns Prof. Hans-Hermann Braess. In his opinion, thanks to his intuition, the driver could even manage to handle even the most difficult situations, which would not lead to an accident. Braess, formerly a researcher and developer at Porsche and BMW, was instrumental in the European automobile research project Prometheus (program for a European transport system with maximum efficiency and unequaled safety), which was initiated in 1986 and can be used as a blueprint for autonomous driving. The fact that two generations of researchers are later questioned about the vision of accident-free driving reveals the enormous complexity of the project. Like Braess, Dr. Dan Keilhoff of the Department of Motor Vehicle Mechatronics at the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Automotive Engineering (IVK) at the University of Stuttgart, Germany, believes that the risk of a traffic accident is always there. Even if the SAE J3016 for Stage 5 defines that in full automation, the dynamic driving task is performed under any roadway and environmental condition, such as by a human driver. There remains a fundamental problem with the control loop. The risk of an open loop The findings of classical control engineering were already known at the time of Braess: "Only closed systems, in which all system states can be considered, can be automated." Now, however, road traffic is a totally open system that can give rise to a virtually infinite number of situations. At this point, Keilhoff points out that level 5 must work under "all boundary conditions, a task that engineers will continue to work on for decades". The challenge of driving fully automatically on a forest road in the fog, night and rain will not be adequately resolved in the coming years. This is a task that "no single company in the world can solve on its own", as Alejandro Vukotich explains to ATZ in an interview. Vukotich has been responsible for the development of driver assistance and autonomous driving at BMW since 2019 and considers the cooperation of his company with Daimler to be logical. Together, both companies want to "develop a reliable overall system instead of individual island solutions," explains Daimler board member Ola Källenius. The robotic car project is ambitious: in only seven years, the vehicles should be able to roll fully automatically over the motorway. After all, it is important to catch up with the lead of the Google subsidiary Waymo. But where are we today? Highly automated functions are gaining momentum Leading automakers already promise level 3 for 2021. BMW, for example, with the automated electric car iNext. At level 4, people are working at full speed. The focus is on the environment detection, which is an enormous challenge for the entire industry. At the same time, the car must also reliably recognize persons who suddenly step on the street. At low speeds this is already safe to display today. But what is the acceptance of a robot car that drives through the city at a walking pace? The solution is found in high-performance computers. Because future autonomous driving functions require enormous computing power, Nvidia in particular has been able to position itself in the industry in recent years. For example, with the Computer Drive AutoPilot, which the company refers to as "the world's first commercially available Tier 2+ automated driving system." This helps many OEMs to launch the first semi-autonomous automobiles in the near future. As a computer base serve system-on-a-chip (SoC) Xavier-type processors as well as specially developed Drive software, with the self-driving autopilot functions including freeway, lane change, track recordings, etc. programmed in a jiffy, so to speak. Tesla dares more than the market again The capabilities of Nvidia processors are also being exploited by automotive supplier ZF, which claims to own the ProAI RoboThink, the "most powerful AI-capable supercomputer the mobility industry currently has to offer." The statement was made by Wolf-Henning Scheider, CEO of ZF, who also praised the work of his developers, who, in combination with a conglomerate of sensors, were able to analyze even complex traffic situations in real time. With up to 600 trillion operations per second (600 TeraOPS), autonomous passenger cars from level 4 should be able to operate safely in public transport. Since October 2017, the first autonomous bus in Germany has been used in public spaces in Bad Birnbach - a project by the district of Rottal-Inn and the market town with developers from Deutscher Bahn, Regionalbus Ostbayern and EasyMile © Eva Stranzinger The driverless electric shuttle from Bosch with integrated services is intended to bring a new kind of mobility to life © Bosch Tesla now wants to bring even more speed into developing autonomous driving functions by developing "the best chip in the world", as Elon Musk explained in April 2019 at the Tesla's Autonomy Investor Day. The approximately six billion transistors on the only 260 mm² piece of silicon should provide 21 times the performance of the previously used Nvidia chips. This is good news for those Level 4 advocates who have already brought the first people movers to pole position. Among them, the German e.GO movers, the "first production-ready vehicle with ZF systems to enable an automatically moving mobility concept for cities," says Scheider. Because the EZ10 of the French vehicle manufacturer EasyMile claims the city for itself. Robot minibus taxis are a historic opportunity Equipped with on-board cameras, Lidar, a GPS tracking system and a simultaneous positioning and mapping function (Slam), the EZ10 vehicle from EasyMile operates as an autonomous bus in Germany - more precisely in Bad Birnbach in Lower Bavaria [3]. The Swiss, on the other hand, are testing the Arma vehicle of the French company Navya as part of the mobility lab Mobility Lab Sion-Valais. Similar in form and function is the Olli of Local Motors. The progress made in this field has particularly affected the Association of German Transport Companies (VDV). Such a vehicle can become part of public transport. In a position paper prepared in November 2015, the VDV estimates that as part of a fleet of "robotic minibus taxis, they are a historic opportunity: an ideal complement to high-performance public transport". A perfect carsharing automobile that comes to the passenger on demand and drops him at the finish. Uber - huge sums of uncertainty In addition to technology companies, OEMs and startups, autonomous mobility is a company with a completely different business model: Uber, the travel agent from California (USA). Although Uber may not initially appear to be the logical candidate for the development of autonomous automobiles, the company has in the past "made headway with a number of investments and acquisitions, as well as massive academic buy-outs," said Clemens Wasner, CEO of enlite.AI tells. There is a lot of money in the game. Among other things, this shows Uber's IPO (the so-called S-1 IPO filing), which the company applied for on April 11, 2019, with the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). It's easy to see how Californians envision the future of mobility. From a potential market potential, estimated at almost three billion US dollars, Uber can currently absorb just 1%. For sustainable growth of its market share, above all autonomous driving is cited, with which many routes, especially those that are carried out without driver-friendly robo-taxis and thus free of personnel costs, can be completed. However, the planned IPO also gives a first insight into the enormous sums that are necessary to remain competitive in the field of autonomous mobility. references [1] Nunes, A .; Hernandez, K .: The Cost of Self-Driving Cars Will Be the Biggest Barrier to Their Adoption. Published on 31.01.2019. Online: https://hbr.org/2019/01/the-cost-of-self-driving-cars-will-be-the-biggest-barrier-to-their-adoption, accessed on 03.05.2019 [2] Frost & Sullivan: Frost & Sullivan presents Top Cities, the world leader in Smart Mobility Solutions and their strategies. Press release, 16.04.2019 [3] Spa administration Bad Birnbach: First autonomous bus in Germany. Press release, 05.04.2018. Online: https://www.badbirnbach.de/presse/erster-autonomer-bus-in-deutschland, called 03.05.2019
  5. Daimler and Geely want to launch a 50:50 global joint venture to further develop Smart as the leading electric mobility brand in the coming years. According to the cooperation agreement, the next generation of smart electric models will be produced in a new purpose-built electric car factory in China. The Supervisory Board of the new Smart Joint Venture will be filled on equal terms with six executives from both parties. It has been agreed that the new generation of smart vehicles will be designed by the global Mercedes-Benz design network and developed by Geely's global engineering centers in China.
  6. Dr. Dirk Hoheisel (60), Managing Director of Robert Bosch GmbH, retires on 30 June 2019. He has been a member of the Executive Board since 2012, where he is responsible for the systems integration of the Mobility Solutions division as well as the Chassis Systems Control, Car Multimedia, Automotive Electronics, Automotive Steering and Two Wheeler & Powersports divisions. Altogether, Hoheisel worked at Bosch for almost 29 years. Harald Kröger will be appointed to the management of Robert Bosch GmbH effective July 1, 2019. He succeeds Hoheisel. The 51-year-old electrical engineering engineer is currently Chairman of the Divisional Board of the Automotive Electronics division. Within the Divisional Board, he is responsible for Body Electronics, E-Bikes, Innovation Management, IoT,
  7. ZF has signed a binding agreement to acquire Wabco. ZF's Board of Management and Supervisory Board and Wabco's Board of Directors have approved the proposed acquisition. The companies will form an integrated systems supplier for commercial vehicle technology; the combined company will generate a turnover of around 40 billion euros. Wabco offers integrated braking systems and stability controls, air suspension, transmission automation and aerodynamics, telematics and fleet management systems. In 2018, the company achieved a turnover of 3.3 billion euros. It has around 16,000 employees in 40 countries worldwide, including 2600 engineers.
  8. The battery technology company Akasol continues to grow and is building its new headquarters in the southwest of Darmstadt. The new main administration building with an area of 7000 m 2 and a modern test center for commercial vehicle batteries will be built on the 20,000 m 2 plot by mid-2020 . There, mechanical, electronic and electrotechnical tests are to be carried out with current test equipment - from the cell to the battery system. In addition, a 15,000 m 2large, double-storey production, assembly and logistics hall built. The planned total investment volume is in the mid-double-digit million euro range. The production capacities planned at the new location will be based on new customer order volumes, which are currently still being negotiated.
  9. Etas GmbH and National Instruments have agreed to jointly develop, manufacture and maintain pre-integrated hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) systems. The companies are joining forces to optimize the testing and validation of vehicle electronics software, including ECUs and sensors for current and future customer needs. Both partners have decades of experience in the automotive industry. The aim of the cooperation is to meet customer requirements in the automotive sector, which are rapidly developing through electrification and driver assistance systems. The joint venture will have its headquarters in Stuttgart. The closing of the transaction will depend on common regulatory and antitrust clearance and is expected to occur in June 2019.
  10. Daimler Trucks and Torc Robotics, pioneers in autonomous driving, are partnering to market fully automated SAE Tier 4 trucks in the United States. Daimler Trucks and Buses Holding Inc., a subsidiary of Daimler AG, acquires a majority stake in Torc Robotics; This creates a connection that goes far beyond a conventional OEM-supplier relationship. "Torc is not a start-up, but one of the world's most experienced automakers," said Roger Nielsen, CEO of Daimler Trucks North America. It is contractually agreed that Torc will remain a separate company retaining its name, team, existing customers and facilities in Blacksburg, Virginia.
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